Is your organization highly centralized or highly decentralized?
Lean organizations are characterized by pushing decision-making to the “lowest” possible level. In the using the word “lowest”, I am just reflecting the hierarchy that exists in most organizations. What we’re really talking about here is ensuring that decision-making occurs where the work is actually happening. In order to enable this, the information also needs to be shared with the team(s) actually doing the work.
This is at odds with traditional work structures where people at the top were paid handsomely to have all the information and the peons were given such dumbed down tasks, that they didn’t have to do much thinking. Take a few minutes to study the history of industrialization. You may be surprised at what you uncover. Unfortunately, this “thinking” still influences the control structures of the average organization.
Even though in knowledge work, the “associate” is often a highly trained and educated individual (see Drucker), most organizations still create structures where all the important information is held at the top. You know, with Director X, VP Y or C-level exec Z. Nothing meaningful gets done without a decision being made by someone with a big title. Supposedly, those at the top are more informed and have more experience. Supposedly. The Taylorist mindset lives on; cloak and dagger style.
You can choose whether you want to work in organization like these. I made up my mind a few years ago that I wouldn’t except I was helping to the change that situation. You know why? I can’t stand to see so much human potential wasted.
Additionally, the delays introduced as a result of waiting for people at the top to make decisions impacts us economically (well except we’re a monopoly). Innovation is stifled, creativity pretty much killed. But someone still ends up with a fat bonus.
As a leader, how much decision making is centralized in you? How much decision-making is decentralized on your team? How much information is given to individuals and teams that enables them to actually make decisions? How many centralized boards and bodies does your organization have?
The greater the centralization the lesser the ability for the organization to scale and the more human potential is being wasted. The waste of human potential is such a sorry thing.
Are we are addicted to the old status quo? Could it be that all change initiatives we participate in are just a facade? Lipstick on a pig? Fun and games? Could it be that the way it is, is the way we really want it to be? I could get into examples but I’ve decided to protect the innocent today.
How can we tell? Well, change often implies that we enroll in some way new of thinking. A different set of values (supposedly) become important to us. We make decisions based on fresh set of principles.
I get that. So pray tell, how can we tell? Ask yourself this: what happens when things get tough? When things become uncomfortable? Do we revert to our old values and principles? Do our entrenched mental models step into high gear? What behaviors emerge? Old or new?
I often find in organizations (faith-based, social, work etc etc) that we talk a good game about how we want to change and how we intend to act differently. Unfortunately, our actions speak so loud that no one can hear what we’re saying (Jeff Van Gundy). Our behaviors are unchanged.
I’ve always believed that true change can only come about by assessing if our actions as invidivuals and groups are congruent with our (new) values and principles and then asking for help when they are out of wack. Change is hard. Good intentions are not enough. A lot of humility is required. The humility lacking in many of us.
Are we addicted to the status quo?
Really? Ok maybe. Then again, maybe not. It’s totally up to you and your organization.
Change is hard as it goes against what we know or what we are currently comfortable doing. It’s always been interesting to me that the Satir J-curve models going from chaos to new status quo as going up a steep slope. It’s very clear that we’re working against gravity and the pull to go back to where we were and what we’re familiar with.
The 4 values and 12 principles of the Agile Manifesto are supposed to help us see the areas where we can get better – at least if we wanted to be guided by Agile philosophy. Getting better often means challenging and changing some tough stuff. Tough stuff that actually makes a difference. Not just implementing 3 week iterations or estimation with that thing called story points. I mean those things are good, but in doing so we often ignore the most important stuff. I often run into folks who consider leaving the (old) status quo as being pragmatic and suggest that those who desire change are “purists” or “idealists”. Ok, possibly guilty as charged.
Here lies my comfort. Progress is dependent on the unreasonable woman and man.
Last night I tweeted:
One of the most intelligent guys I know (and just reconnected with) Abiodun Ofuya, responded with:
Leave it to Abiodun to pull in both Greek mythology and Alexander Pope. He’s been doing this since we were in high school 20+ years ago. The message came through loud and clear. From Alexander’s Pope’s poem “An Essay On Criticism”:
A little learning is a dang’rous thing
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring
Little learning is often worse than ignorance as little learning gives a false sense of understanding and prevents additional learning whereas ignorance is simply that, ignorance. Little learning is one of the more common conditions present in many organizations that they are unaware of. Little learning leads to the improper implementation of methods, practices and measures. The moment we believe that “we’ve got it” or have become “an expert”, we may be dangerously close to “little learning”. Regardless of where this “little learning” lies within the organization, it is often leads to the creation of bad system. As Dr. Deming said:
A bad system will defeat a good person every time
So what’s the antidote:
Make a personal commitment to continual learning. Allow your existing mental models to be challenged. Consult those who are further along the learning path. As the child of two academics, I believe (based on my personal experience) that learning never ends and I’m always amazed by the new stuff I learn even in areas where I’ve been highly engaged and involved with for a long time. Remember that:
…drinking largely sobers us again
* See Pierian Spring for more information.
Accountability is defined in the dictionary as:
The quality or state of being accountable; especially : an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for one’s actions
Responsibility is often used as a synonym for accountability however frameworks such as RACI distinguish between the two words stating that those who do the work are “responsible” and the individual who is ultimately answerable is “accountable” as only one person can be accountable because accountability cannot be shared. I suppose this may work in non-team environments or co-acting groups but I struggle to see how it can really work in organizations that are committed to self-directed work teams.
For example, let’s take a a football (soccer) team, and apply the RACI matrix to it. Based on the RACI definitions, the players (workers) on the team are not accountable (answerable) for their play or the teams outcomes, only the coach or manager is. Or how about a choir? Should the members of the choir not be accountable for their performance or is the choir director the only one accountable? I wouldn’t want to be a part of a team where my teammates did not feel we were collectively accountable for our results.
George Santanya famously said:
Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
It’s important that we don’t forget that matrices such as RACI are products of project management which is a by-product of scientific management. If you are a manager and/or leader in an organization, hopefully you are aware of scientific management and Taylorism. My experience (unfortunately) however, is that many managers and leaders are not familiar with management theories. Read the label before use, please.
Self-directed teams are accountable for delivering a work product that pleases those who will use or benefit from their work product. Accountability for delivering the work product should be that of the team and not that of a single individual whether that individual is the lead developer, architect, product owner, project manager or simply the smartest guy or gal in the room. Team members are individually accountable for meaningfully contributing to the overall success of the team. If you intend to make one individual accountable for the work product, then you must also give them full control and strip the rest of the team of their accountability. As Stephen Covey said:
You can’t hold people accountable for results if you manage their methods.
Is this something your really want to do?
While we’re talking about accountability, I should point out team accountability is not an idea original to Agile. A review of the work and study done on team-based work structures make it very clear that one of the conditions needed for self-directed teams to be successful is team accountability.
Some of my colleagues in Agile-sphere have an aversion to the word accountability because it often translates to a “who do we blame when things go wrong” culture. I happened to work in an organization with a business unit that had a strong culture of blame. I can recall an experience where a VP wanted me to let him know who on my team would be working on a certain piece of functionality so that he would know who to go to when things went wrong. He wanted to know who was accountable. Unfortunately for him, I wasn’t in the mood to provide that type of information so I ultimately became accountable. I don’t believe that accountability needs to translate to a culture of blame if individuals and teams take both responsibility and accountability. Unfortunately, many organizations are challenged in this area.
If you’re truly making the commitment to self-directed work teams, make the commitment to team accountability as well. More to come on this….
PS: I started this post in October of last year (2014) but never really got to completing it.
1. Leading Self-Directed Work Teams by Kimball Fisher
2. Leading Teams: Setting the Stage for Great Performances by J. Richard Hackman
It’s been a minute since I’ve blogged as a lot has happened in life recently, the biggest being the passing and laying to rest of the matriach of our family, my grandmother. Hannah Joji Ikonne. She was the best grandmother ever and her passing away is one of the sources of inspiration for this post.
Who are you? When I ask myself that question I realize that I am the sum total of the experiences and circumstances (and more) that have occurred during my lifetime. Let me quickly share a few:
- I grew up in a home of faith
- I grew up in a third world country
- I did farm work, cutting foliage with a cutlass, planting corn, cassava etc etc
- I walked 3 miles to my high school and 3 miles back home every day for 4 years in the scorching sun
- I lived on a university campus where academic rigor was the order of the day
- Etc etc…
How have these factors impacted me as an individual?
- I am person of faith
- I have empathy for the less fortunate and I’m content with whatever I have as I realize there are people who have much less
- I am not afraid of hard work and get irritated often when people complain about certain aspects of our white collar jobs
- I appreciate having a car :-)
- I have little respect for those who haven’t done their research on a subject and yet have such a loud opinion on the subject
These are how the factors impacted me, not anyone else. A lot of the folks I grew up with experienced similar conditions and were impacted in a different way. (You know who you are).
But the point of this post is not to make my life experiences material for the public domain but rather to remind us of something we already knew, we are complex creatures. I feel that this is extremely important to remember as we interact with one another, especially in the workplace.
Don’t be quick to judge or jump to conclusions. Remember that the individual on the other side of the table is also a product of their life experiences just like you are. Have empathy. Be tolerant. Be vulnerable.
Now I know for a fact that this is easier said than done (I personally struggle with being vulnerable for example) but we need to keep trying if we want to experience deep and meaningful relationships. Paraphrasing St. Francis:
Seek to understand then be understood
Rest in peace Mama Ukwu.
Is there such a thing as “sequential Agile software development”? Possibly. Maybe. Look at your process. How many phases does a piece of work have to go through before its complete? How many (in)formal stages does your process have? How about sign-offs? How about handoffs? Interestingly enough, the hallmark of the strawman referred to as Waterfall is the fact that work passes through different phases in a sequential manner just like a bottle of Coke goes through the bottling process. Until work is completed in one phase, work in the next phase cannot be started. Is this how your process works? Is it possible that you have mini-waterfalls occuring in your iterations? #justasking.
But Eb, product development phases have to be sequential you say. At least that’s how we were taught. Yeah, I remember those classes as well. But let’s think about it. Is it possible (for example) that certain test activities can occur while code is being developed? Can testing commence after some code is checked in even if the story is not 100% complete? Can different disciplines perform activties on the same work item in parallel? Can we challenge ourselves to identify how we can all contribute concurrently to the completion of a work item? Do we even have these conversations? Please don’t tell me you won’t know when the work item is ready for you to work on it. What happened to face-to-face conversation and all its 21st century incarnations?
Classic Agile task boards are famous for having only three phases: To Do, In Progress and Done (or something similar). The goal is that everyone should be working together concurrently and collaboratively on the items “In Progress”. Phases should overlap such that there is no value in explicitly calling them out because the work item cycles through each phase quickly and concurrently. Could your team get by with three phases? If the answer is no, why? How many phases do you need? Do your phases foster a true spirit of teamwork and collaboration? Is this an area worthy of inspecting and adapting?
The essence of this post is not to suggest that every team should have only three (or any number for that matter) phases but rather to spur us to take a hard look at how we’re working as Agile team and consider whether our process fosters as much collaboration as is possible or leaves some collaboration on the table. Are we dependent on handoffs and sign-offs? Can we only pick up an item after its completely through a previous phase? Are we really more waterfall-esque than maybe we’d want to admit? To start and finish together, the team needs to work on the same things together. Take a look at the image below, which type reflects your current process? Hopefully at least Type B? Maybe Type C?
Image Credit: The New New Product Development Game – HBR